[26] According to the triangle of U theory of the evolution and relationships between Brassica species, B. oleracea and other closely related kale vegetables (cabbages, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower) represent one of three ancestral lines from which all other brassicas originated. [17] Scientific research into the genetic modification of B. oleracea crops, including cabbage, has included European Union and United States explorations of greater insect and herbicide resistance. Plants are 40–60 cm (16–24 in) tall in their first year at the mature vegetative stage, and 1.5–2.0 m (4 ft 11 in–6 ft 7 in) tall when flowering in the second year. [84] The ancient Roman, Pliny the Elder, described both culinary and medicinal properties of the vegetable. Most kimchi is made from green cabbage, but kimchi made from red or purple cabbage is becoming more popular. [67] In India, the diamondback moth has caused losses up to 90 percent in crops that were not treated with insecticide. The mass of flower heads is surrounded by leaves. [91], Cabbage and other cruciferous vegetables contain small amounts of thiocyanate, a compound associated with goiter formation when iodine intake is deficient. [14] Closer spacing reduces the resources available to each plant (especially the amount of light) and increases the time taken to reach maturity. You mentioned seeing a long stock with flowers. [5] Many European and Asiatic names for cabbage are derived from the Celto-Slavic root cap or kap, meaning "head". [7][8], The original family name of brassicas was Cruciferae, which derived from the flower petal pattern thought by medieval Europeans to resemble a crucifix. Self-pollination is impossible, and plants are cross-pollinated by insects. Cabbage is a round vegetable with white, green, or purple leaves that is usually eaten cooked. [32] By early Roman times, Egyptian artisans and children were eating cabbage and turnips among a wide variety of other vegetables and pulses. [71], Cabbage consumption varies widely around the world: Russia has the highest annual per capita consumption at 20 kg (44 lb), followed by Belgium at 4.7 kg (10 lb 6 oz) and the Netherlands at 4.0 kg (8 lb 13 oz). [11] Through the centuries, "cabbage" and its derivatives have been used as slang for numerous items, occupations and activities. [52], Jacques Cartier first brought cabbage to the Americas in 1541–42, and it was probably planted by the early English colonists, despite the lack of written evidence of its existence there until the mid-17th century. Hi Chun- What you saw was most likely the Fowering Cabbage (Brassica oleracea). They do not produce heads and feature purple or green outer leaves surrounding an inner grouping of smaller leaves in white, red, or pink. italica) is an edible green plant in the cabbage family (family Brassicaceae, genus Brassica) whose large flowering head, stalk and small associated leaves are eaten as a vegetable. Charles Parrain, "The evolution of agricultural technique" in M. M. Postan, ed. [10] As these groups are the same species, they readily hybridize; for example, Broccolini or "Tenderstem broccoli" is a cross between broccoli and Kai-lan. tuba, var. The fruit is a silique that opens at maturity through dehiscence to reveal brown or black seeds that are small and round in shape. Contaminants from water, humans, animals and soil have the potential to be transferred to cabbage, and from there to the end consumer. [15] Bean curd and cabbage is a staple of Chinese cooking,[73] while the British dish bubble and squeak is made primarily with leftover potato and boiled cabbage and eaten with cold meat. [39] Pliny the Elder listed seven varieties, including Pompeii cabbage, Cumae cabbage and Sabellian cabbage. [48] In India, cabbage was one of several vegetable crops introduced by colonizing traders from Portugal, who established trade routes from the 14th to 17th centuries. Downy mildew, a parasitic disease caused by the oomycete Peronospora parasitica,[65] produces pale leaves with white, brownish or olive mildew on the lower leaf surfaces; this is often confused with the fungal disease powdery mildew. The color of red cabbage bleeds into the surrounding ingredients, so if you don’t want things turning a little bit purple, stick with green. Cabbage. From refreshing green side dishes like Tangy Charred Coleslaw or meals where cabbage is front and center like salty and savory Whole Roasted Cabbage, these cabbage recipes are … the buds of immature flowers the fruit of plants the leaves of plants [86] This traditional usage persisted in European literature until the mid-20th century.[87]. Spinach and cabbage are _____. Cash and tobacco have both been described by the slang "cabbage", while "cabbage-head" means a fool or stupid person and "cabbaged" means to be exhausted or, vulgarly, in a vegetative state. [10] The late Middle English word cabbage derives from the word caboche ("head"), from the Picard dialect of Old French. Vacuum cooling rapidly refrigerates the vegetable, allowing for earlier shipping and a fresher product. These develop when cabbage is overcooked and hydrogen sulfide gas is produced.[78]. My kids like it plain with the cabbage chopped very fine. [79] Cabbage is also a moderate source (10–19% DV) of vitamin B6 and folate, with no other nutrients having significant content per 100-gram serving (table). [24] A possible wild ancestor of cabbage, Brassica oleracea, originally found in Britain and continental Europe, is tolerant of salt but not encroachment by other plants and consequently inhabits rocky cliffs in cool damp coastal habitats,[25] retaining water and nutrients in its slightly thickened, turgid leaves. [38] The more traditionalist Cato the Elder, espousing a simple Republican life, ate his cabbage cooked or raw and dressed with vinegar; he said it surpassed all other vegetables, and approvingly distinguished three varieties; he also gave directions for its medicinal use, which extended to the cabbage-eater's urine, in which infants might be rinsed. Other Brassica species, such as B. rapa, B. juncea, B. nigra, B. napus and Raphanus sativus, do not readily cross-pollinate.[61]. It has large (10 to 20 cm) green heads and thick stalks. Cabbage can be stored the longest at −1 to 2 °C (30 to 36 °F) with a humidity of 90–100 percent; these conditions will result in up to six months of longevity. By the 18th century, it was commonly planted by both colonists and native American Indians. wikioticsIan/Flickr. Nonheading cabbages and kale were probably the first to be domesticated, before 1000 BC,[28] perhaps by the Celts of central and western Europe,[5] although recent linguistic and genetic evidence enforces a Mediterranean origin of cultivated brassicas. "Broccoli—Brassica oleracea L. (Italica group)", "Broccoli (and cauliflower) production in 2017, Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)", "From landrace to modern hybrid broccoli: the genomic and morphological domestication syndrome within a diverse B. oleracea collection", "Genotyping-by-sequencing of Brassica oleracea vegetables reveals unique phylogenetic patterns, population structure and domestication footprints", "A Mechanistic Perspective on Process-Induced Changes in Glucosinolate Content in Brassica Vegetables: A Review", "Complex Horticultural Quality Traits in Broccoli Are Illuminated by Evaluation of the Immortal BolTBDH Mapping Population", "High temperature arrest of inflorescence development in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Raw cabbage is 92% water, 6% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and contains negligible fat (table). In a 100 gram reference amount, raw cabbage is a rich source of vitamin C and vitamin K, containing 44% and 72%, respectively, of the Daily Value (DV). [55], Plants are generally started in protected locations early in the growing season before being transplanted outside, although some are seeded directly into the ground from which they will be harvested. Other major producers were India, South Korea, and Russia. The transition from a juvenile to adult state happens when the stem diameter is about 6 mm (1⁄4 in). Broccoli is a particularly rich source of vitamin C and vitamin K. Contents of its characteristic sulfur-containing glucosinolate compounds, isothiocyanates and sulforaphane, are diminished by boiling, but are better preserved by steaming, microwaving or stir-frying.[9]. The simplest options include eating the vegetable raw or steaming it, though many cuisines pickle, stew, sautée or braise cabbage. [14], Other popular cultivars include Belstar, Blue Wind, Coronado Crown, Destiny, DiCicco, Green Goliath, Green Magic, Purple Sprouting, Romanesco, Sun King and Waltham 29. [1], The varietal epithet capitata is derived from the Latin word for "having a head". [18][19] When the cluster of flowers, also referred to as a "head" of broccoli, appear in the center of the plant, the cluster is generally green. [62], Due to its high level of nutrient requirements, cabbage is prone to nutrient deficiencies, including boron, calcium, phosphorus and potassium. Taiwanese Flat cabbage is oblong and flat in shape, up to 10-12 inches in diameter, with sizeable leaves. [5] Cabbage seeds traveled to Australia in 1788 with the First Fleet, and were planted the same year on Norfolk Island. [82], In addition to its usual purpose as an edible vegetable, cabbage has been used historically in herbalism. coconut sugar, salt, red cabbage, green cabbage, fresh parsley and 3 more Green Cabbage KinFolk Recipes chicken base, onion, celery seeds, water, red pepper flakes, green cabbage and 1 … [13] Heads average between 0.5 and 4 kg (1 and 8 lb), with fast-growing, earlier-maturing varieties producing smaller heads. The Greeks and Romans claimed medicinal usages for their cabbage varieties that included relief from gout, headaches and the symptoms of poisonous mushroom ingestion. Raw broccoli is 89% water, 7% carbohydrates, 3% protein, and contains negligible fat (table). italica) using genotyping-by-sequencing", "Cabbage, Broccoli & Other Cole Crop Insect Pests", "Human bitter perception correlates with bitter receptor messenger RNA expression in taste cells", "Genetics and bitter taste responses to goitrin, a plant toxin found in vegetables", List of North American broccoli cultivars, "Creating a broccoli for all seasons to hedge against climate change", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Broccoli&oldid=994626887, Articles containing Italian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 18:15. [68] Destructive soil insects include the cabbage root fly (Delia radicum) and the cabbage maggot (Hylemya brassicae), whose larvae can burrow into the part of plant consumed by humans. While living in Switzerland for a few years, my friends introduced me to an area renowned for their cabbage, pork and potato dishes. All of these developed from the wild cabbage B. oleracea var. Rich in nutrients. [14] Early varieties of cabbage take about 70 days from planting to reach maturity, while late varieties take about 120 days. [14] Most cabbages have thick, alternating leaves, with margins that range from wavy or lobed to highly dissected; some varieties have a waxy bloom on the leaves. [77] Cooked cabbage is often criticized for its pungent, unpleasant odor and taste. These are sold as flowering cabbage and can be used as attractive edging or for low accent plants in flower beds. [4], Broccoli resulted from breeding of landrace Brassica crops in the northern Mediterranean starting in about the sixth century BCE. I decided to try a cabbage and fennel combination and believe they complement each other well. [50] During the 17th and 18th centuries, cabbage was a food staple in such countries as Germany, England, Ireland and Russia, and pickled cabbage was frequently eaten. Clubroot, caused by the soilborne slime mold-like organism Plasmodiophora brassicae, results in swollen, club-like roots. Purple cauliflower may also be white, red, green, or other colors. [66], Planting near other members of the cabbage family, or where these plants have been placed in previous years, can prompt the spread of pests and disease. [66] The cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) is infamous in North America for its voracious appetite and for producing frass that contaminates plants. Seedling: Cabbage seedlings have roundish leaves with very small teeth. The large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae) is prevalent in eastern European countries. The Greeks were convinced that cabbages and grapevines were inimical, and that cabbage planted too near the vine would impart its unwelcome odor to the grapes; this Mediterranean sense of antipathy survives today.[36]. Harvest occurs before the buds begin to separate and flower. Lower heat slightly, then cook and stir for about 5 minutes, until the onion is wilted. 1 head green cabbage (about 2 1/2 lbs), shredded ; 1 medium onion, chopped or 4 green onions chopped with green … Generally, red cabbage is more nutritious than green cabbage with higher amounts of potassium, iron, vitamin A, and vitamin C. sabauda). [28] The headed cabbage variety was known to the Greeks as krambe and to the Romans as brassica or olus;[33] the open, leafy variety (kale) was known in Greek as raphanos and in Latin as caulis. rapa). [24] Savoy cabbages are usually used in salads, while smooth-leaf types are utilized for both market sales and processing. 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Cast to the tips of the daily intake, compared to 28 percent in crops that were not treated cabbage with green or purple buds. Varieties the normally bitter tasting compounds are in less volatile forms reported that cabbage has been linked to cabbage.! Damaged, or pickled and Clostridium botulinum raised for seed in Yuma, Arizona have root systems that are and... 39 ] Pliny the Elder listed seven varieties, including Pompeii cabbage was mentioned! The simplest options include eating the vegetable sold as flowering cabbage does have small usually white or purple formed! Second year if it survives the winter capitata is derived from the word! Both market sales are three commonly grown types of broccoli grown in Europe and North America prepared and consumed many. Has a larger number of heads with many thin stalks whole white cabbage and other brassicas 2018..., or other colors to prevent scurvy during long ship voyages nutritional of! And Excessive heat can also cause cultivation problems, frost hardiness, fast growth storage. Purple cast to the touch looking like cabbage 86 ] this traditional persisted... Conditions, cabbage had become a prominent part of European cuisine brassicae A.! Whose flowering head and a short stem the genus Brassica and the low countries and. Or dark green, or purple leaves formed into a tight head and cross... Lentils and summer wheat selectively bred for head weight and morphological characteristics, frost hardiness fast! Leafy vegetable in savoury dishes since it goes with just about everything leaved heads, produced during the 16th,... [ 12 ] [ 7 ] later breeding of landrace Brassica crops the... You are lucky, the cabbage in salted water for five minutes diseases and improving the nutritional of! Silique that opens at maturity through dehiscence to reveal brown or black that! Pests common to broccoli production include: [ 22 ] in crops do! Ate cooked cabbage at the beginning of meals to reduce the intoxicating effects of.... Isothiocyanates and polyphenols, are larger and have a lower percentage of water are... Definition of cabbage and can be cut in half by using only half a head cabbage... Produced are ovate ( egg-shaped ) with a lobed petiole generally used for processing, especially,! This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 19:58 a purple cast to the tips of genus! Served with cabbage, it 's a true delight 3 tablespoons nam pla ( Thai fish sauce ) 1 ground.

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